Guide Structural Transformation and Rural Change Revisited (Africa Development Forum)

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Monday [Seminar] Seminar: "What can we learn from field research on water problems? January 24, June 27, Monday - May 30, Tuesday [Report] Discussion and Exchange Views: Trade and global supply chains: Policy for compliance to regulations and private standards in developing countries March 2, Tuesday [Seminar] Special Seminar "International cooperation through establishment of standards and certification system for environmentally friendly products and technologies" December 4, Friday [APL] Diffusion of automation technologies and their potential and actual effects on manufacturing employment in India November 1, Friday [APL] The impact on armed conflicts of the interaction between climate change and natural resources October 10, Inequality and Growth in Brazil January 18, Thursday [APL] Examining the impact of insurance on healthcare utilisation and provider choice using a natural experiment in South Africa October 6, Friday [APL] Is this the end of the road?

Will life-time earnings for the average female ever lift to 66 cents in the average male dollar? May 26, March 31, Practice proves that China-Africa economic and trade cooperation serves the common interests of the two sides, helps Africa to reach the UN Millennium Development Goals, and boosts common prosperity and progress for China and Africa. In recent years, a number of emerging economies have begun to play a growing role in the finance of infrastructure in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Their combined resource flows are now comparable in scale to traditional official development assistance ODA from OECD countries or to capital from private investors.

This new trend reflects a much more positive economic and political environment in Sub- Saharan Africa. Real GDP growth in the region has been sustained at 4 to 6 percent now for a number of years, and has benefited from an improved investment climate. The rise of the Chinese and Indian economies has fueled global demand for petroleum and other commodities.

Integrated rural development in Africa: Back to the future?

Africa is richly endowed with these and faces a historic opportunity to harness its natural resources and invest the proceeds to broaden its economic base for supporting economic growth and poverty reduction. In this context, south-south cooperation provides a channel through which the benefits of economic development in Asia and the Middle East can be transferred to the African continent, through a parallel deepening of trade and investment relations.

The Africa Renewal information programme, produced by the Africa Section of the United Nations Department of Public Information, provides up-to-date information and analysis of the major economic and development challenges facing Africa today. Among the major items it produces is the renowned magazine, Africa Renewal formerly Africa Recovery , which first appeared in It also produces a range of public information materials, including backgrounders, press releases and feature articles.

It works with the media in Africa and beyond to promote the work of the United Nations, Africa and the international community to bring peace and development to Africa. The Africa Renewal programme examines the many issues that confront the people of Africa, its leaders and its international partners: economic reform, debt, education, health, women's advancement, conflict and civil strife, democratization, aid, investment, trade, regional integration, rural development and many other topics. It tracks policy debates. It provides expert analysis and on-the-spot reporting to show how those policies affect people on the ground.

And, it highlights the views of policy-makers, non-governmental leaders and others actively involved in efforts to transform Africa and improve its prospects in the world today. Carew, Development theory and the promise of democracy in Africa Y. Rojas, Notes on the centrality of the African state , R. Mbaku, Governance, wealth creation and development in Africa: the challenges and the prospects , in African Studies Quarterly J.

World Bank, Adjustment and Growth. Lessons from and for Sub-Saharan Africa F. Stewart, J. Klugman and A. Burnside and D. Mackenzie and D. Bhattacharya, P. Montiel, and S. Pill and M. Jbili, K. Enders, and V. Cashin and C. Yeats, A. Amjadi, U. Reincke, and F. J-P Chauffour, S. Eken, M. El-Erian, and S. Ouattara, An Agenda for the 21st Century E.

The contribution that FDI can make to their economic development and integration into the world economy is widely recognized. For this reason, African countries have made considerable efforts over the past decade to improve their investment climate. They have liberalized their investment regulations and have offered incentives to foreign investors.

More importantly, the economic performance of the region had substantially improved from the mids. However, the expected surge of FDI into Africa as a whole has not occurred. Too often, potential investors discount the African continent as a location for investment because a negative image of the region as a whole conceals the complex diversity of economic performance and the existence of investment opportunities in individual countries.

Sirleaf, Rethinking aid to Africa T. Parfitt: Europe's Mediterranean designs: an analysis of the Euromed relationship with special reference to Egypt C.

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Kornegay, The Western powers, South Africa and Africa: burden sharing, burden shift, and spheres of influence. AAGM, U. Arms and Training Programs in Africa. The Clinton Legacy. Haq, Global commitment for women's advancement and African reality J. Stolz and P. Using comparative analysis of African informal economies, this study explains why this was the case. It outlines the economic rationales that drive these informal economies to show how their logic often derives from social considerations that may be at odds with the goals of profit maximization.

It then maps out some of the institutional terrain within which the informal sector operates. The study also analyzes the extent to which government policies in Africa have facilitated and constrained the informal sector; it describes continuing impediments to the growth of local and informal markets; and explores incentives that would enhance informal institutions. The paper empirically investigates, in the context of African countries, the determinants of income distribution and inequality, the effect of inequality on economic growth, and the channels through which inequality affects growth.

Data for 35 countries over different periods in the last four decades were employed. Factors identified as having affected income distribution include the level of economic development attained, regional factors, size of government budget and the amount of it devoted to subsidies and transfers, phase of economic cycle, share of agricultural sector in total labour force, as well as human and land resources endowment. Some evidence that high inequality reduces growth is also found. The channels through which inequality affect growth are found to be through reduction in secondary and tertiary education investment, reduction in political stability, and increase in fertility rate.

There is, however, no evidence that it affects private saving and investment or the size of government expenditure and taxation, contrary to what is contended in the theoretical literature. This paper analyses prospects for foreign direct investment FDI in Africa. The problems with regard to attracting FDI in small economies are not that different than those in larger economies in the developing world. In particular, lack of infrastructure, cumbersome government regulations and restrictions on equity holdings by foreigners are common to both large and small countries.

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FDI flows could be a lot higher in sub- Saharan Africa if governments implemented a proper set of regulations that enabled investors to do business in a fair and consistent manner. In small countries, a single large project can be very significant in terms of raising interest in FDI. For example, Mozal in Mozambique has given the country greater visibility in the international arena. Also, if a small country is able to successfully implement a large project, it establishes itself as a credible host for FDI, thereby attracting further investment and employment.

This paper uses data on individual earnings in manufacturing industry for five African countries in the early s to test whether firms located in the capital city pay higher wages than firms located elsewhere, and whether such benefits accrue to all or only certain types of workers. Earnings equations are estimated that take into account worker characteristics education and tenure and relevant firm characteristics notably size and whether foreign owned. Any location effect identified is therefore additional to appropriate control variables.

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There are two main findings. In some countries this location premium exceeds plausible consumer price differentials, between the capital and other urban areas. This does suggest that real purchasing power manufacturing wages are higher in the capital city although this real premium is no more than ten per cent. Second, we find that skilled workers earn a higher wage premium in the capital city than those less skilled. This paper assesses the use of information and communication technologies ICTs and their impact on the economic performance of small- and medium-scale enterprises SMEs of three East African countries: Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda.

The empirical findings suggest that investment in ICT has a negative impact on labour productivity and a positive impact on general market expansion. The majority of the countries in Sub-Saharan Africa now have lower capability including state capability than they did at independence.

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The State in a Changing World. The political economy of development. This academic site promotes excellence in teaching and researching economics and development , and the advancing of describing, understanding, explaining and theorizing. On Planning for Development: Africa. The rise of new industries John Page - Thursday, January 11, From UNCTAD Economic Development in Africa Fostering industrial development in Africa in the new global environment There is mounting evidence indicating that industrial development presents great opportunities for sustained growth, employment and poverty reduction.

The publication provides some information on the broad development trends relating to gender, poverty and environmental issues in the 53 African countries. Africa Research Institute "Africa Research Institute aims to reflect, understand and build on the dynamism in Africa today. Profiles on all these countries are contained in this volume, based on data available to the Secretariat. These are based on information available as of December White Paper by the Government of People's Republic of China - China-Africa Economic and Trade Cooperation "China is the largest developing country in the world, and Africa is home to the largest number of developing countries.

Executive Summary. Destroying African Agriculture By Walden Bello - 7 June Biofuel production is certainly one of the culprits in the current global food crisis. But while the diversion of corn from food to biofuel feedstock has been a factor in food prices shooting up, the more primordial problem has been the conversion of economies that are largely food-self-sufficient into chronic food importers. The plan to privatise the urban water supply system by March has become a defining battlefield. For the poor, the commercialisation of water, combined with lack of investment in the sector and regressive socio-economic distribution, is a key factor in their povertystriken situation.

At the heart of the issue are questions of need versus profit, and whether water is a right or a commodity. Kenya has embarked on privatisation without any discernible ideological reservations.

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Far from achieving the goal of good governance, privatisation so far has widened the gender gap, made water more expensive than oil and turned patients away from hospitals untreated. In fact, privatisation has spread economic risks throughout society while channelling economic gains to the few. The privatisation policy is only one aspect of the Structural Adjustment Plan. Initially considered as a means to submit public companies to more rigorous management rules, today it is no more than an instrument to achieve the objective of budgetary balance and to have exceptional income to reduce the foreign debt and recover the confidence of capitalist partners.

Health and education are undergoing an underhand process of liberalisation that will worsen social inequality rather than help provide access to services or ensure their efficiency. While applying structural adjustment programmes in the mids the government designed and implemented a sweeping plan for the privatisation of public companies. Since , 27 public companies have effectively passed into private hands.

The result has been the deterioration of the education system and the public health service, the degradation of food production and security, increased unemployment and the growth of exclusion and inequalities. Liberalisation and privatisation policies, and the new terms of international trade, have had negative impact on the national economy and the socio-economic status of the population.

The decline in public investment in services has reflected negatively on human development, as indicated by the decline in calorie intake and the increase of the population under the poverty line. While some businessmen and investors cite GDP growth and higher efficiency as positive results of liberalisation, civil society finds that economic reform measures have reduced government services in communities, increased individual costs for social services, and caused job losses. The results have been regressive, as a small minority have benefited while the majority have become further impoverished and disenfranchised.

From onwards, the government accelerated the process and started selling companies that were not losing money. Civil society has been unable to exert pressure on the government to prevent decisions being made contrary to the interests of the majority. Although in some areas such as telecommunications and electricity, the liberalisation has improved quality, in others, the improvement is hardly cosmetic. While most of the poor and rural population do not have access to basic services, for women in particular privatisation has increased their work load.

So that those excluded receive better basic services it is necessary to develop policy and regulatory mechanisms that reinvest the resources generated by privatisation in the social infrastructure. In addition to income deficiency, the poor lack access to adequate food, health and educational facilities, safe water, clothing and shelter. While the average growth rate was well below the rate achieved by a handful of East Asian economies, it equalled or exceeded the growth rates attained by many developing countries in other regions. In particular there was a notable acceleration of growth in sub-Saharan Africa SSA 1 during the s table 1 , supported by a boom in commodity prices and foreign aid.

Investment in many countries in the region exceeded 25 per cent of GDP, and the savings gap remained relatively moderate. Economic performance deteriorated rapidly in SSA in the late s and early s, whereas the slowdown of growth was relatively moderate in North Africa. Unlike many countries in other developing regions which managed to restore growth after the lost decade of the s, stagnation and decline continued in SSA during the first half of the s due to a combination of adverse external developments, structural and institutional bottlenecks and Samir Amin, Maldevelopment - Anatomy of a global failure In this book it is proposed to analyse this failure of development from a political stand-point, for discussion of the options in the framework of macroeconomic schema provides no more than commonplace and foreseeable findings.

We must aim higher and integrate in the discussion all the economic, political, social and cultural facets of the problem and at the same time fit them into a local framework Africa that takes account of interaction on a world scale. We acknowledge that this aim comes up against major theoretical difficulties. Social reality as a whole has three facets: economic, political and cultural. The economic aspect is perhaps the best known. In this field, conventional economics has forged tools of immediate analysis and with greater or lesser success of management of an advanced capitalist society.

Historical materialism has sought to plunge deeper and has often succeeded in illuminating the character and extent of social struggles underlying the economic choices. The field of power and politics is relatively less known; and eclecticism in the theories advanced shows the inadequate scientific mastery of the reality.

Functional political thought, like its former or recent ingredients geopolitics, systems analysis, etc. It is true that historical materialism provides a hypothesis as to the organic relationship between the material base and the political superstructure, and the hypothesis is fruitful if it is not too crudely interpreted. The Marxist schools, however, have not conceptualized the issue of power and politics modes of domination as they have the categories modes of production. The propositions in this direction, by Freudian Marxists for example, have the undoubted merit of drawing attention to neglected aspects of the issue but have not yet produced an overall conceptual system.

The field of politics lies virtually fallow. It is not by chance that the first chapter of Volume One of Capital includes the section entitled 'The Fetishism of Commodities and the Secret thereof. Marx intends to unveil the mysteries of capitalist society, and the reason why it appears to us as directly governed by economics, in the forefront of the social scene and the determinant of the other social dimensions that seem then to accommodate to its demands.

Economic alienation thus defines the essence of the ideology of capitalism.

Structural transformation and inclusive growth in Africa - an interview with Robert Osei

Conversely, pre-capitalist class societies are governed by politics, which takes the forefront of the stage and provide the constraints that other aspects of the social reality - including economic life-seem bound to obey. If a theory of these societies were to be written, the work would be entitled 'Power' instead of capital for the capitalist mode and the opening chapter would deal with 'the fetishism of power' instead of the fetishism of commodities.